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Digitalisasi untuk IKM lebih maju

SMEs have an essential role in the Indonesian economy. The economic growth required by Indonesia to become a middle-income country in 2025 is 7%. The consolidation of the digital economy sector will play an essential role in Indonesia's reaching its full potential. With the increasing number of small and medium-sized industries (SMIs) involved in the digital economy through broadband (broadband), electronic business (e-commerce), social media, cloud technology (cloud), and mobile phone platforms (mobile platforms), SMEs can grow faster in terms of income and employment, as well as become more innovative and more competitive to face the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC).broadband), electronic business (e-commerce), social media, cloud technology, and mobile/cell phone platforms (mobile platform), SMEs can grow faster in income and job creation and become more innovative and competitive to face the ASEAN Economic Community (MEA).

It is stated in World Bank research that broadband has a massive role in supporting the digital involvement of SMEs. Doubling broadband penetration levels and increasing digital engagement of SMIs could increase Indonesia's annual economic growth by 2%. The digital involvement of SMEs can be identified in four categories, namely (1) based on technology adoption and (2) network/online presence. (online), and (3) use of social media and e-commerce empowerment. SMEs that have online access, are involved in social media, and develop e-commerce capabilities usually enjoy significant business benefits in income, job opportunities, innovation, and competitiveness.

Some advantages of using digital technology for SMEs in Indonesia include an increase in income of up to 80%, one and a half times greater ability to increase employment opportunities, 17 times more likely to be innovative, and SMEs that use more digital technology become more competitive internationally.

Since the exchange of data and information between devices and different parties is realtime Is a key element of smart factories; the data can represent production status, energy consumption behavior, material movement, customer orders and feedback, supplier data, etc. Therefore, smart factories The next generation must be able to adapt in real time to an ever-changing market in terms of demand, technology choices, and regulations.

Technology helps businesses improve communications, operate more efficiently, overcome barriers to accessing training and financial services, and reach more customers. Digitalization for SMEs in Indonesia is still focused on using digital technology in the retail sector and interaction with customers. But this is an excellent first step in developing Industry 4.0 in Indonesia.

The next step for SMEs will be to introduce digital technology such as cloud computing (cloud computing) and data analyzer (data analysis), which can improve supply chain management and internal communication efficiency. The platform provides a more affordable way for businesses to access more valuable technology, including sales and management of related parties, coordinating workers, or industrial human resource management (HRMI) systems. In the future, using cloud technology (cloud), SMEs can make decisions more quickly by combining business reports and displaying information directly (real time). Added value and opportunities for development include:

  1. Higher-income increase

Hal ini di dorong berkembangnya produk-produk feature or often called smart product/smart serviceThis is driven by developing feature products or innovative products/intelligent services. Manufacturing creativity to create smart products or services is also driven by consumers who increasingly require complete services for the products provided.

  1. Greater job opportunities

According to Delloid's survey business offline According to a Delloid survey, offline businesses have a 20% chance of increasing the number of employed workers. Essential online businesses are at least 9% likely to increase employment, while medium and advanced online businesses are 23% and 150% more likely to increase employment than offline businesses.

  1. Innovation and export

Business with capabilities online Businesses with advanced online capabilities are 17 times more likely to be innovative (i.e., experienced a significant change in how they did business in the past year) than offline businesses. Businesses with basic and medium connectivity are about 7 and 12 times more innovative. offline. Businesses with basic and medium connectivity are about 7 and 12 times more innovative.


So, how is the implementation for SMEs?

Adopsi teknologi di kalangan IKM saat ini cukup banyak. Menurut survey delloit sebesar 96 % IKM di Indonesia memiliki akses ke computer, 84% memiliki smartphone dan 73% memilki akses ke internet melalui koneksi fixed atau mobile broadbandTechnology adoption among SMEs is currently quite a lot. According to a Beloit survey, 96% of SMEs in Indonesia have access to computers, 84% have smartphones, and 73% access the internet via fixed or mobile broadband connections. In its implementation, SMEs can be digitized by selling products through websites, social media, and e-commerce. One of the easiest ways to use digitization is through the web, social media, and e-commerce. The involvement of SMEs in digitization can be applied through:

  1. Network/online business (online) base

An essential online business is a business with broadband access, digital tools such as computers and smartphones, and a website. However, this business is not involved in social media (except email) and has no e-commerce capabilities for ordering or payment. e-commerce untuk pemesanan atau pembayaran

  1. Bisnis online menengah

Bisnis online menengah adalah bisnis yang memilki konektivitas digital dan juga secara aktif terlibat dalam media social dengan mengintegrasikan situs mereka dengan media social, live chat atau ulasan konsumen. Bisnis ini belum memilki kapabilitas e-commerce sepenuhnya.

  1. Bisnis online lanjutan

Bisnis online lanjutan memilki konektivitas, integrasi jejaring sosial dan kapabilitas e- commerce.

However, it needs to be considered in implementing the digitization of IKM in Indonesia. IKM in remote areas tends not to have digital involvement because internet access cannot reach remote areas. In implementing IKM digitization and towards industry 4.0, the government's role in providing infrastructure, digital sector regulation, and investment restrictions can play a big role in expanding and accelerating growth. Government policies that need to be considered include:

  • Memfasilitasi IKM mempunyai multiplatform untuk berjualan dan promosi

Dukungan pemerintah berupa program untuk IKM, termasuk program yang bertujuan untuk meningkatkan keterlibatan IKM secara digital. Kemitraan yang kuat dengan swasta akan membantu semakin banyak IKM  di Indonesia (scale-up).

  • Memperluas pembayaran elektronik (e-payment)

Government support for electronic payments ensures that payment systems are easily accessible, reliable, and secure. This will build greater consumer trust and increase the use of electronic payments.

  • Memperluas akses terhadap investasi

Digital SMEs require a combination of good investment sources from domestic and international, and barriers to investment access will reduce the potential for SMEs to develop. Investment policies should be open to all sources and types of capital so that SMIs in Indonesia will benefit from wider access to online micropayment instruments.

Strategi dalam mengimplementasikan revolusi industri 4.0 untuk IKM di Indonesia dengan kebijakan pemerintah berupa pemberian insentif pada pelaku usaha padat karya dalam penyediaan dan peningkatan infrastruktur industri, penyiapan SDM industri melalui pendidikan vokasi yang mengarah pada high skill operator, upgrading SDM industri. Hal ini akan berdampak pada perekonomian nasional yaitu perluasan segmentasi sektor industri dengan adanya disruptive manufacturing dan peningkatan kontribusi sektor industri terhadap PDB.

Dengan dukungan pemerintah untuk meningkatkan jumlah IKM yang online, terlibat dengan media sosial, serta partisipasi dalam e-commerce, akan lebih banyak IKM yang akan bergerak naik dalam tingkat penggunaan digitalisasi baik dari bisnis offline ke online maupun dari skala kecil menuju skala menengah ke bisnis berkelanjutan. Dengan begitu maka akan terjadi peningkatan kinerja bisnis IKM di Indonesia yang nantinya akan berdampak pada perekonomian nasional

Alfiyan Darojat